Cancer Immunotherapy

Lymphoma

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Lymphoma is one of the major cancer types for which new immune-based cancer treatments are currently in development. This page features information on lymphoma and immunotherapy clinical trials for lymphoma patients, and highlights the Cancer Research Institute’s role in working to bring effective immune-based treatments to people with this type of cancer.
 

Urgent Need

Lymphoma is the name for a group of blood cancers that develop in certain immune cells. The two main types are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). About 90% of lymphomas are the non-Hodgkin type, while about 10% are Hodgkin.

In 2016, in the U.S., it is estimated that there will be 72,580 new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 8,500 new cases of Hodgkin lymphoma, for a total of 81,080 cases. An estimated 21,270 deaths from lymphoma will occur in the U.S. in 2016, most of which are NHL (20,150).

Hodgkin lymphoma has characteristics that distinguish it from NHL, including the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. These are large, cancerous cells with a distinct appearance, named for the scientists who first identified them. Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most curable forms of cancer.

NHL represents a diverse group of diseases distinguished by the characteristics of the cancer cells associated with each disease type. Most people with NHL have a B cell type (about 85%). The others have a T cell type or a natural killer (NK) cell type of lymphoma. Some patients with fast-growing NHL can be cured. For patients with slow-growing NHL, treatment may keep the disease in check for many years.
 

Current Treatment

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients are usually treated with rituximab (Rituxan®, a monoclonal antibody) in combination with chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is used less often and typically when the disease is localized to a single site in the body. Other monoclonal antibodies directed at lymphoma cells are used for some types of NHL, as are antibodies linked to a radioactive molecule. In addition, new small molecule drugs are being used that target important survival pathways in NHL tumor cells. If NHL persists or recurs after initial treatments, high dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplantation may be an option.

Hodgkin lymphoma is usually treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of the two, depending on the stage and cell type. Stem cell transplantation may be an option if these are not effective. The targeted drug brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®)—a monoclonal antibody linked to a chemotherapy drug—is approved to treat Hodgkin lymphoma in patients whose disease has failed to respond to other treatment and, as of August 2015, to prevent relapse following a stem cell transplant. In 2016, nivolumab (Opdivo®) was approved to treat Hodgkin lymphoma that has relapsed or progressed after a stem cell transplant and post-transplantation brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris).
 

Immunotherapy for Lymphoma

Current immunotherapies for lymphoma fall into four broad categories: checkpoint inhibitors, adoptive cell therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and therapeutic cancer vaccines.

Checkpoint Inhibitors 

A promising avenue of clinical research in lymphoma is the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. These drugs work by targeting molecules that serve as brakes on the immune response. By blocking these inhibitory molecules or, alternatively, activating stimulatory molecules, checkpoint inhibitors are designed to unleash or enhance pre-existing anti-cancer immune responses. Several different checkpoint inhibitors are currently being tested in clinical trials for patients with lymphoma:

Nivolumab (Opdivo®): A PD-1 Antibody +/- Ipilimumab (Yervoy®): A CTLA-4 Antibody
  • A phase II study of nivolumab in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, either previously treated or newly diagnosed (NCT02181738).
  • A phase II study of nivolumab in patients with human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-associated leukemia/lymphoma (NCT02631746).
  • A phase II study of nivolumab combined with brentuximab vedotin in treating older patients with untreated Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02758717).
  • A phase I/II study of nivolumab combined with brentuximab vedotin in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02581631).
  • A phase I/II study of nivolumab combined with brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02572167).
  • A phase I/II study of nivolumab combined with epacadostat (INCB24360), an IDO inhibitor, in patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02327078). IDO is expressed by a number of tumor types and correlates with poor prognosis.
  • A phase I/II study of nivolumab combined with urelumab (BMS-663513), an anti-4-1BB/CD137 antibody that acts to stimulate the immune system, in patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02253992).
  • A phase I/II study of nivolumab combined with ipilimumab (Yervoy®), an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, after stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoma who are at high risk for recurrence (NCT02681302).
  • A phase I/II study of nivolumab combined with ibrutinib, a targeted therapy, and in patients with hematological cancers (NCT02329847).
  • A phase I/II study of BMS-986016, an anti-LAG-3 antibody, +/- nivolumab in adult patients with hematologic cancers (NCT02061761).
  • A phase I/Ib study of ipilimumab in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies after a stem cell transplant (NCT01822509).
  • A phase I study of nivolumab +/- ipilimumab or lirilumab, an anti-KIR antibody, combined with in patients with lymphoma (NCT01592370).
  • A phase I study of nivolumab combined with RRx-001 in patients with lymphoma (NCT02518958).
  • A phase I study of the combination of ipilimumab and brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT01896999).
  • A pilot study of ipilimumab combined with lenalidomide (Revlimid®), an angiogenesis inhibitor, for patients with lymphoma who have had a stem cell transplant (NCT01919619).
Pembrolizumab (Keytruda®, MK-3475): A PD-1 Antibody
  • A phase III study of pembrolizumab versus brentuximab vedotin in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02684292).
  • A phase II study of pembrolizumab in relapsed or refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02332980).
  • A phase II study of pembrolizumab in patients with follicular lymphoma (NCT02677155).
  • A phase II study of pembrolizumab after autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02362997).
  • A phase II study of pembrolizumab in patients with relapsed or refractory T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02535247).
  • A phase II study of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma (NCT02576990).
  • A phase II study of pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent central nervous system lymphoma (NCT02779101).
  • A phase Ib/II study of pembrolizumab combined with ACP-196, a targeted therapy, in patients with B cell malignancies (NCT02362035).
  • A phase I/II study of pembrolizumab in children with PD-L1 positive advanced, relapsed, or refractory lymphoma (NCT02332668).
  • A phase I/II study of pembrolizumab in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma who had failed to respond to or relapsing after CAR therapy (NCT02650999).
  • A phase I/II study of G100, a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, +/- pembrolizumab in patients with follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02501473).
  • A phase Ib trial of pembrolizumab in patients with hematologic malignancies including Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT01953692).
  • A phase I study of pembrolizumab combined with AFM13, an anti-CD30/CD16A antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02665650).
  • A phase I study of pembrolizumab in patients with HIV and relapsed, refractory, or malignant cancer, including Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02595866).
  • A pilot study of pembrolizumab combined with chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02541565).
Atezolizumab (Tecentriq™, MPDL3280A): A PD-L1 Antibody
  • A phase Ib study of atezolizumab in combination with obinutuzumab, an anti-CD20 antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02220842).
  • A phase Ib study of atezolizumab combined with obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy in patients with follicular or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02596971).
  • A phase I study of atezolizumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors (NCT01375842).
  • A phase I study of atezolizumab combined with obinutuzumab and polatuzumab vedotin, a CD79B antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02729896).
  • A phase I study of atezolizumab combined with obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma (NCT02631577).
Durvalumab (MEDI4736): A PD-L1 Antibody +/- Tremelimumab: A CTLA-4 Antibody
  • A phase I/II study of durvalumab combined with tremelimumab and Poly-ICLC, a Toll-like receptor 3 agonist, in patients with advanced and biopsy-accessible cancers, including cutaneous T cell lymphoma (NCT02643303). This is being sponsored by the Cancer Research Institute.
  • A phase I/II study of durvalumab in patients with lymphoma (NCT02733042).
  • A phase I/II study of durvalumab combined with ibrutinib, a targeted therapy, in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma (NCT02401048).
  • A phase I study of durvalumab +/- tremelimumab or AZD9150, a STAT3 inhibitor, in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02549651).
  • A phase I study of durvalumab in pediatric and adolescent patients with lymphoma (NCT02793466).
Other Drugs
  • A phase II study of MDV9300 (pidilizumab) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02653989) (not yet enrolling) and patients following first remission of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02530125).
  • A phase I/II study of KAHR-102, a fusion protein that links CTLA-4 and FasL, in patients with lymphoma (NCT02545361) (not yet enrolling).
  • A phase I study of avelumab, an anti-PD-L1 antibody, in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02603419).
  • A phase I trial of PF-05082566, an anti-4-1BB/CD137 antibody, in adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT01307267).
  • A phase I study of PF-06801591, a PD-1 antibody, in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02573259).
  • A phase I study of MEDI-570, an anti-ICOS antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory peripheral T cell follicular lymphoma or angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (NCT02520791).
  • A phase I study of IPH4102, an anti-KIR3DL2 antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory cutaneous T cell lymphoma (NCT02593045).
  • A phase I study of GWN323, an anti-GITR antibody, +/- PDR001, a PD-1 antibody, in patients with advanced cancer, including lymphoma (NCT02740270) (not yet enrolling).
  • A phase I study of CA-170, an oral PD-L1, PD-L2, and VISTA antagonist, in patients with advanced cancer, including lymphoma (NCT02812875).
  • A phase I study of ADU-S100 (MIW815), a STING agonist, in patients with advanced cancer, including lymphoma (NCT02675439).
  • A phase I study of REGN2810, an anti-PD-1 antibody, combined with REGN1979, a CD20xCD3 bispecific antibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma (NCT02651662).

Adoptive Cell Therapy

In adoptive cell therapy, immune cells are removed from a patient, genetically modified or treated with chemicals to enhance their activity, and then re-introduced into the patient, often in vastly increased numbers. The immune cells then seek out and destroy the cancer.

One specific form of this approach, called chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, has been shown in early clinical trials to be particularly effective at treating lymphoma. In CAR T cell therapy, T cells from a patient are removed and then genetically modified to express a protein receptor that recognizes a particular antigen found on lymphoma cells. The receptor is called “chimeric” because it consists of two different proteins joined together—an antibody and a T cell receptor. Most existing CARs are designed to recognize a specific marker, called CD19, found on white blood cells called B cells. Both normal B cells and the cancerous B cells from which some lymphomas arise express CD19.

CAR T cell therapies targeting CD19 for lymphoma are currently being tested in clinical trials at various institutions: 

  • University of Pennsylvania is enrolling patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02030834) (phase II), relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02277522) (phase 0), and small lymphocytic lymphoma (NCT02640209) (phase 0).
  • Eight medical centers (City of Hope, UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, University of Chicago, University of Rochester Medical Center, Robert W. Franz Cancer Research Center (Oregon), Sarah Cannon Research Institute (Tennessee), and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center) are enrolling patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (NCT02601313) (phase II).
  • Four medical centers (MD Anderson, City of Hope, Washington University in St. Louis, and Moffitt Cancer Center) are enrolling patients with refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma, refractory primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma, and refractory transformed follicular lymphoma (NCT02348216) (phase I/II).
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is enrolling adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT01865617) (phase I/II).
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington Cancer Consortium is enrolling adult patients with relapsed or refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma plus durvalumab, a PD-L1 antibody (NCT02706405) (phase 1; not yet recruiting).
  • Baylor College of Medicine is enrolling both adult and pediatric patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT01853631; NCT02050347) (phase I).
  • City of Hope Medical Center is enrolling adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02051257) (phase I).
  • MD Anderson Cancer Center is enrolling pediatric and adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or small lymphocytic lymphoma (NCT02529813) (phase I).
  • NCI/National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Maryland) is enrolling patients with B cell lymphoma (NCT02659943) (phase I).
  • Seven medical centers (University of Alabama-Birmingham, City of Hope, Northwestern University, Massachusetts General Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) are enrolling patients with B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02631044) (phase I).
  • University of Pennsylvania and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia are enrolling young adult patients with refractory and relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02624258) (phase 0).

CAR therapies are also being tested for the CD30 marker:

  • UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center is enrolling patients with CD30+ relapsed or refractory Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02690545) (phase I/II) and patients in remission to prevent relapse of CD30+ lymphoma (NCT02663297) (phase I).

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are molecules, generated in the lab, that are designed to target cancer cells and recruit immune cells to attack. They were the first successful forms of immunotherapy for lymphoma, with rituximab (Rituxan), a monoclonal antibody against the CD20 target, now the standard of care for all B cell lymphomas. Several other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are now approved for lymphoma, including obinutuzumab (Gazyva™) and ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®). Some new antibodies in clinical trials for lymphoma are:

  • Several anti-CD19 antibodies: MOR208 in a phase II/III for relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02763319), and two phase II trials for small lymphocytic lymphoma (NCT02005289; NCT02639910, not yet recruiting); ADCT-402 is in a phase I trial for relapsed or refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02669017); and DI-B4 in a phase I trial for patients with B cell lymphoma (NCT01805375).
  • A phase II study of IMGN529, a CD37 antibody-drug conjugate, combined with rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma or other forms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02564744).
  • A phase II study of BI 836826, a CD37 antibody, combined with chemotherapy in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02624492).
  • A phase II study of BL-8040, a CXCR4 antagonist, in patients with relapsed or refractory T lymphoblastic lymphoma (NCT02763384) (not yet recruiting).
  • A phase I study of BTCT4465A, a bispecific antibody targeting CD20 and CD3, in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02500407).
  • A phase I study of ramucirumab, a VEGF receptor 2 antagonist, in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (NCT02745769) (not yet enrolling).
  • A phase I study of IGN002, a CD20 antibody plus an interferon alpha fusion protein, in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02519270).
  • A phase I study of BAY1862864, a CD22 radioantibody, in patients with relapsed or refractory CD22+ non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02581878).
  • A phase I study of polatuzumab vedotin, a CD79 antibody-drug conjugate, combined with obinutuzumab, a CD20 antibody, and venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor, in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02611323).
  • A phase I study of polatuzumab vedotin combined with obinutuzumab and lenalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02600897).
  • A phase I study of JNJ-64052781, a CD19 x CD3 bispecific DART protein, combined with ibrutinib, a BTK inhibitor, in patients with B cell lymphoma (NCT02743546) (not yet recruiting).
  • A phase I study of SGN-CD19B, a CD19 antibody-drug conjugate, in patients with relapsed or refractory follicular or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02702141).

Therapeutic Vaccines

Therapeutic cancer vaccines are designed to elicit an immune response against tumor-specific or tumor-associated antigens, encouraging the immune system to attack cancer cells bearing these antigens. Some vaccines are administered intravenously (into a vein), while others are injected directly into a single site of lymphoma (in situ vaccination) to induce an immune response that travels throughout the body to attack lymphoma wherever it resides. Vaccines in clinical testing include:

  • Imprime PGG is being tested a phase II trial for patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NCT02086175).
  • An in situ vaccine made up of CDX-301 (Flt3L, a dendritic cell growth factor) plus Poly-ICLC (a Toll-like receptor agonist) is being tested in patients with B cell lymphoma (NCT01976585). Joshua Brody
  • An in situ vaccine made up of SD-101 (a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist) is being tested for patients with previously untreated low grade lymphomas (NCT02266147)
  • An in situ vaccine made up of SD-101, given in combination with ipilimumab and radiation, for patients with for patients with relapsed low grade lymphoma (NCT02254772)
  • A type of vaccination in combination with stem cell transplant referred to as immunotransplantation is under investigation for mantle cell lymphoma at Stanford University. The patient’s own tumor cells are activated with CpG (a Toll-like receptor agonist) and used as the vaccine for patients in remission after chemotherapy. This stimulates the immune system to make T cells that target the tumor cells. The T cells are then taken from the patient and given back along with the stem cells after high dose chemotherapy (NCT00490529).

Cytokine

Cytokines are messenger molecules that help control the growth and activity of immune system cells.

  • Two phase II studies of IL-12 in patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (NCT02542124) or relapsed or refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (NCT02544724) (not yet recruiting).

Go to our Clinical Trial Finder to find clinical trials of immunotherapies for lymphoma that are currently enrolling patients.
 

CRI Contributions and Impact

Studies by CRI scientists that are shedding light on the understanding and treatment of lymphoma include:

  • Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology, a form of adoptive T cell therapy, was made possible by decades of research by CRI scientists, including Scientific Advisory Council members Philip D. Greenberg, M.D.Carl H. June, M.D., and Michael Kalos, Ph.D., who was also a CRI postdoctoral fellow, and CRI postdoctoral fellow Isabelle Rivière, Ph.D
  • Jordan Gutterman, a CRI grantee and a member of the Scientific Advisory Council, and colleagues in 1980 reported the first demonstration of the ability of alpha interferon to induce regression of metastatic solid tumors and consistent remissions of blood cancers (lymphoma, breast cancer, and multiple myeloma).[i]
  • In 2000, Louis M. Staudt, a CRI investigator, and colleagues used DNA microarrays to conduct a systematic characterization of gene expression in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), identifying two molecularly distinct forms of DLBCL, which had gene expression patterns indicative of different stages of B cell differentiation. Their results demonstrated that the molecular classification of tumors on the basis of gene expression can thus identify previously undetected and clinically significant subtypes of cancer.[ii]
  • Micromet (now Amgen), building on the work of Gert Riethmuller (a member of the CRI Scientific Advisory Council), developed a recombinant antibody fragment that is bispecific (bispecific T cell engager, BiTE) designed to target the CD19 antigen on B cell lymphoma and the CD3 antigen on T cells, effectively using the T cells to kill the lymphoma cells.[iii]
  • Anjana Rao, a former CRI fellow and a member of the Scientific Advisory Council, and colleagues discovered the enzymatic activity of TET proteins and showed that they alter gene expression in stem cells, cancers, and the brain among others. Loss-of-function mutations in TET2 are shown to be frequent in lymphomas.[iv]
  • CRI investigator Hiroyoshi Nishikawa, M.D., Ph.D., at Osaka University, is working to identify novel targets for immunotherapy against adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a virus-related blood cancer that is resistant to conventional chemotherapies and is characterized by a poor prognosis. In one study, he found that several cancer-testis antigens, including NY-ESO-1, were highly expressed in ATLL and that they could be recognized by killer T cells, providing proof-of-principle for cancer-testis antigens as a novel and potentially promising target for ATLL immunotherapy.
  • Changchun Xiao, Ph.D., a CRI investigator at The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, has generated a mouse model in which a miR-17~92 (a micro RNA cluster) transgene can be turned on conditionally in a cell type-specific manner. The miR-17~92 cluster is known to be highly expressed in cancer cells, but the mechanisms of action of this microRNA in cancer and lymphocyte development are largely unknown. The effects of turning on the transgene in both B and T lymphocytes were tested in a large cohort of mice, about two-thirds of which developed B cell lymphoma. These results show that dysregulation of miR-17~92 expression is sufficient to cause cancer, and suggest that this defect may be one of the primary triggers of human lymphoma.

Updated July 2016

Sources: Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; American Cancer Society Cancer Facts & Figures 2016; GLOBOCAN 2012; ClinicalTrials.gov; CRI grantee progress reports and other CRI grantee documents.


[i] Gutterman JU, Blumenschein GR, Alexanian R, Yap HY, Buzdar AU, Cabanillas F, Hortobagyi GN, Hersh EM, Rasmussen SL, Harmon M, Kramer M, Pestka S. Leukocyte interferon-induced tumor regression in human metastatic breast cancer, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma. Ann Intern Med 1980 Sep; 93: 399-406. (PMID: 6159812)

[ii] Alizadeh AA, Eisen MB, Davis RE, Ma C, Lossos IS, Rosenwald A, Boldrick JC, Sabet H, Tran T, Yu X, Powell JI, Yang L, Marti GE, Moore T, Hudson J, Jr., Lu L, Lewis DB, Tibshirani R, Sherlock G, Chan WC, Greiner TC, Weisenburger DD, Armitage JO, Warnke R, Levy R, Wilson W, Grever MR, Byrd JC, Botstein D, Brown PO, Staudt LM. 2000. Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling. Nature 403: 503-11. (PMID: 10676951)

[iii] Bargou R, Leo E, Zugmaier G, Klinger M, Goebeler M, Knop S, Noppeney R, Viardot A, Hess G, Schuler M, Einsele H, Brandl C, Wolf A, Kirchinger P, Klappers P, Schmidt M, Riethmüller G, Reinhardt C, Baeuerle PA, Kufer P. Tumor regression in cancer patients by very low doses of a T cell-engaging antibody. Science 2008 Aug 15; 321: 974-977. (PMID: 18703743)

[iv] Tahiliani M, Koh KP, Shen Y, Pastor WA, Bandukwala H, Brudno Y, Agarwal S, Iyer LM, Liu DR, Aravind L, Rao A. Conversion of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mammalian DNA by the MLL fusion partner, TET1. Science 2009 May 15; 324: 930-935. (PMID: 19372391); Ko M, Huang Y, Jankowska AM, Pape UJ, Tahiliani M, Bandukwala HS, Ahn J, Lamperti ED, Koh KP, Ganetzky R, Liu XS, Aravind L, Agarwal S, Maciejewski J, Rao A. Impaired hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine in myeloid cancers with mutant TET2. Nature 2010 Dec 9; 468: 839-843. (PMID: 21057493)

 

Lymphoma News & Stories

Reviewed By:

Ronald Levy, M.D.
Professor and Chief, Division of Oncology, Stanford University

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