The Cancer Research Institute was founded by Helen Coley Nauts in 1953. To appreciate the history of the Institute, however, we should first look back to 1938. While mourning the death of her father Dr. William B. Coley—a prominent surgeon who practiced medicine in New York between 1890 and 1936—Mrs. Nauts began to go through his papers and came to an important realization. Although Dr. Coley had been a noted cancer surgeon, he was also a pioneer in the non-surgical treatment of cancer, an approach that would lead to some of today's most impactful cancer immunotherapy breakthroughs.
Bacterial Toxins and Treatments
Mrs. Nauts learned that, in the early 1890s, Dr. Coley had observed that some cancer patients experienced spontaneous remission of their tumors in a considerable number of cases where they contracted acute bacterial infections. Convinced that the disappearance of the tumors was somehow connected with the infections, Dr. Coley took a daring step. He injected live bacteria into a patient with an inoperable malignant tumor in order to bring about a virulent infection. The patient made a complete recovery, living another 26 years until a heart attack took his life. Dr. Coley went on to develop a safe and effective mixture of bacteria for treating cancer patients, known as Coley’s mixed bacterial toxins. Unfortunately, Dr. Coley’s work was overshadowed by the advent of X-ray and radium treatment and, subsequently, chemotherapy.
Mrs. Nauts became inspired by her father’s work and, recognizing its potential significance, undertook her own investigations into Coley’s mixed bacterial toxins. A housewife and mother, Mrs. Nauts had no formal medical training, yet she felt compelled to find a way to let people know about her father’s important work. Over the next dozen years, with neither a medical education nor financial backing, Helen taught herself oncology, immunology, and record keeping in order to interpret and publish her father’s work. It took her more than three years to finish the monumental task of sorting through his records, which lacked the detailed case histories that were needed to prove the effectiveness of his toxins. She tracked down 896 cases of microscopically confirmed cancers that had been treated with Coley’s mixed bacterial toxins. She published her findings—data compilations so precise that they are still consulted by cancer researchers for clues about the disease—showing that there truly were beneficial effects to her father’s treatment.
The “Father of Cancer Immunotherapy”
Although the first half of the twentieth century witnessed great advancement in the medical application of the biological sciences, the field of immunology remained a neglected and sparely populated landscape during these first visionary years. Mrs. Nauts’ groundbreaking work rekindled the medical community’s interest in exploring the link between cancer and the immune system. As a result, the medical community has come to regard Dr. William B. Coley as the “Father of Cancer Immunotherapy.”
But Mrs. Nauts’ fight did not end there. She envisioned an organization that would address the needs of the growing field of cancer immunology and support the people and projects that would establish immunotherapy as a major force in the fight against cancer.
With a grant of $2,000 from Nelson Rockefeller, Mrs. Nauts and her devoted friend Oliver R. Grace founded the Cancer Research Institute (CRI) in 1953. During the first two decades of CRI’s history, the science of cancer immunology grew rapidly. Mrs. Nauts successfully recruited some of the world’s most prestigious and innovative oncologists and immunologists to serve on the Institute’s Scientific Advisory Council. Prominent among these advisors today include Nobel Laureates and members of the National Academy of Sciences. Mrs. Nauts became the Institute’s founding executive director and served tirelessly in that role until 1982, when she became the Institute’s director of science and medical communications. During that time, her efforts to educate the public and foster scientific discourse within the medical community gave the Cancer Research Institute international renown as a clearinghouse for cancer immunotherapy information. She remained actively involved in the Institute’s affairs until her death in January 2001, at the age of 93. As a result of Mrs. Nauts’ work and the efforts of those she inspired, cancer immunology now offers one of the most promising approaches to the understanding and control of cancer, while the Institute she founded is now regarded as a pioneer and leader in the cancer research arena.
Expansion and Education
Over the course of its 60+ years in existence, the Institute has undergone several important programmatic evolutions in response to (and often in anticipation of) developments in the field of cancer immunology. The first of these began in 1971, when the Institute appointed Lloyd J. Old, M.D., a prominent cancer immunologist, to be the Institute’s medical director. He set out at once to expand CRI’s scope, bringing many of the world’s most distinguished immunologists to the Institute’s Scientific Advisory Council. It became a body that could speak with unimpeachable authority. Old realized that in order to understand the principles underlying Coley's work and the larger hope for the development of immune-based strategies for cancer treatment, investment in basic immunology research was of paramount priority.
In 1971, the Institute established its Postdoctoral Fellowship Program to attract outstanding young scientists to immunology and train them in the best labs under the tutelage of skilled mentors. This investment in the field grew an increasing population of cancer immunologists needing funding at more advanced stages of their careers. To meet this need, the Institute established in 1986 as a complement to its postdoctoral fellowships its Investigator Award Program, which provides funding to tenure track assistant professors who are making their first forays into independent research—a challenging period that can determine the course of a career for years to come.
CRI’s decades of investments in immunology paid significant dividends in the 1990s. Armed with deeper knowledge of the immune system’s basic workings, scientists were able to create techniques for identifying cancer antigens suitable for testing in vaccines. They learned how to construct many types of vaccines to deliver a given antigen, and developed methods to precisely monitor the results. As discoveries began to migrate from the laboratory bench to the medical clinic, CRI adapted yet again to provide funding for those investigators who were carrying out the avant garde research by creating a Clinical Investigation Program that supports preclinical studies and clinical trials testing new immunotherapies against cancer. The Institute also added another program, its Student Training and Research in Tumor Immunology (STaRT), a training program to support graduate students planning to pursue a career in cancer immunology.
Meanwhile, in order to establish a more formal network of cancer immunology’s international talent base, the Institute initiated in 1994 its Annual International Cancer Immunotherapy Symposium. These annual meetings convene hundreds of researchers from dozens of countries and bring them up to the minute on progress in the field. In 2015, CRI along with three other cancer research organizations, merged their immunotherapy meetings together to become a single reference meeting for the entire field. The CRI-CIMT-EATI-AACR International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference alternates annually between the locations in the United States and Europe, and attracts more than 1,500 immunologists and tumor immunologists from around the world.
Fostering Global Collaboration
It became apparent that many research centers were working toward common goals, but the lack of communication and teamwork among them was proving a hindrance to the advancement of the field. Research often consists of stand-alone projects that follow their own guidelines. Results are hard to compare and learn from, and proprietary interests often get in the way of sharing those results. To counter this inertia and accelerate discovery, CRI’s Scientific Advisory Council posed the idea that the Institute should develop further its unique powers as a convening agent by coordinating research efforts across international boundaries.
The collaborative research model was the result of this effort. This model brings together the best researchers from different institutions and focuses them on the most promising topics. With the implementation of standardized methods for monitoring and data reporting in a free and open forum, CRI facilitated a more efficient approach to discovery that maximizes each participating institution’s intellectual, financial, and physical resources.
Beginning in 1999, the model was first employed in what is now called the Cancer Antigen Discovery Collaborative (CADC), dedicated to identifying antigens in colon, breast, and prostate cancer. As CRI entered the new millennium, the proven model was applied to tests of vaccines on actual patients, through its Cancer Vaccine Collaborative (CVC). Developed jointly with the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, the CVC unites a growing number of researchers in a worldwide quest that should ultimately uncover the basics of effective cancer immunization. From 2001 to 2011, the CADC and the CVC comprised the two arms of the Clinical Investigation Program that originally began in the 1990s.
Increased Efficiency Through Consolidation
In late 2007, the Irvington Institute for Immunological Research merged with the Cancer Research Institute, combining its postdoctoral fellowship program with CRI's. During the more than 90 years of its existence, the Irvington Institute established itself as a leading source of postdoctoral fellowship funding for research on immunology and diseases associated with the immune system, including AIDS, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other immune system disorders. The merger consolidated the resources of both organizations, with CRI assuming leadership of the combined program, renamed the CRI Irvington Postdoctoral Fellowship Program. As a result of the merger, the Cancer Research Institute was able to grow by 25 percent the number of fellows it funds each year. In the increasingly competitive environment of academic research funding, CRI's ability to fund additional fellowship awards helps to secure the future of immunological and cancer immunological research.
The following year, the Cancer Vaccine Consortium of the Sabin Vaccine Institute came under the Cancer Research Institute fold. This association of biotech and pharma companies as well as academic institutions engaged in cancer immunotherapy development extended the scope of CRI's impact beyond academic research and early clinical discovery—now covering later-phase clinical development typically led by industry. In 2010, the association renamed itself the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium to better reflect the group's mission to advance the development of all cancer immunotherapies beyond just vaccines, and in 2015, further refined its scope to function as a "think-tank" devoted to addressing primarily industry-facing issues related to immunotherapy drug development.
Innovation and Transition
In 2010, CRI took an important strategic step forward in realizing its mission to conquer cancer through immunotherapy with the launch of the Cancer Vaccine Acceleration Fund. The Fund is an innovative model for philanthropic investment in early-stage clinical development of promising cancer immunotherapies that have been prioritized by our scientific leadership based on their potential to revolutionize cancer treatment in the near term. The Fund empowers the clinical trials infrastructure built jointly by CRI and its partner the Ludwig Institute, and obtains access to industry-controlled drugs for use in CRI/Ludwig Cancer Vaccine Collaborative (CVC) clinical trials. In 2012, CRI rolled the CVC and the Fund into a single program called the Clinical Accelerator. The Clinical Accelerator has established collaborative relationships across academia and industry, gaining access to highly promising immunotherapies and designing clinical trials that not only answer important scientific questions aimed at improving immunotherapy's effectiveness in more types of cancer, but also give patients opportunity to receive cutting-edge cancer treatment.
2011 saw other historic transitions at CRI with the retirement in June of our founding scientific and medical director, Lloyd J. Old, M.D., as director of the CRI/Ludwig Cancer Vaccine Collaborative, and in August as director of the CRI Scientific Advisory Council. Sadly, Dr. Old passed away in November of that year. CRI established the endowed Lloyd J. Old Memorial Fellowship Fund, and in 2012 began to co-fund with the American Association for Cancer Research the annual Lloyd J. Old Award in Cancer Immunology.
At the helm of CRI's scientific leadership today are two highly distinguished cancer immunologists who both worked closely with Dr. Old and who have been members of the CRI community for many years. In June 2011, CRI and Ludwig Cancer Research named Jedd D. Wolchok, M.D., Ph.D., director of the CRI/Ludwig CVC Clinical Trials Network. CRI named James P. Allison, Ph.D., as Dr. Old's successor as director of the Scientific Advisory Council. The combined clinical and laboratory expertise of Wolchok and Allison ensures CRI has a solid foundation as more promising cancer immunotherapies make the transition from laboratory to clinic and beyond.
Reaching Patients and Caregivers
As cancer immunotherapy becomes increasingly available as a treatment option for patients, the need grows to provide trusted, easy-to-understand information to patients and caregivers who are trying to make sense of this new approach to cancer treatment. In 2014, the Cancer Research Institute launched a new website devoted to patients and caregivers called TheAnswerToCancer.org. The site offers information about immunotherapy for many different kinds of cancer, features stories from patients who have received immunotherapy treatment, connects users to others willing to answer questions about their personal experiences with immunotherapy, and helps patients and caregivers locate immunotherapy clinical trials.
The Path Forward
Today, virtually every major research institution in the world working in immunology and immunotherapy has scientists on staff who have been or are currently being funded by CRI, with fresh talent on the way. The journey begun by Dr. Coley isn’t over. The Institute’s work has brought us very close to the establishment of more immune-based therapies, such as cancer vaccines, checkpoint inhibitors, and a growing repertoire of other antibody-based therapies, as standard cancer treatment options for patients around the globe.
Collaboration with the many others who have now joined in our belief that immunotherapy holds the key to conquering all cancers will be a cornerstone of our strategy. CRI will continue to be a pioneer and leader in bringing immunotherapies to more cancer patients by:
- seeking innovative partnerships with biotech and pharmaceutical companies that are developing promising immunotherapies in their drug pipelines
- collaborating with disease-specific cancer charities seeking to extend their research portfolio into clinical immunology
- funding basic science and training future generations of scientists
- educating patients and caregivers about their immunotherapy treatment options and encouraging them to advance research through participation in clinical trials.
Researchers are confident that, in the foreseeable future, doctors will have a wide range of immunotherapies as a front-line defense against cancer—improving the effectiveness of today's standard, non-immunological approaches.
With your help, we can reach this revolutionary milestone sooner, bringing lifesaving treatment more people in need.