"Head and neck cancer" is a collective term that includes several different types of cancers. Cancers of the head and neck are categorized by the area in which they begin. This includes the mouth (oral cavity), throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), sinuses and nose cavity, and salivary glands
The most common type of head and neck cancer is squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCCA). Most HNSCCA begins in the layer of flat cells (the epithelium) which line the structures of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the mouth, throat, and voice box. HNSCCA accounts for about 3% to 5% of all cancers in the United States, where, in 2018, an estimated 65,000 people were diagnosed with head and neck cancer and aproximately 14,000 died of the disease. Globally, there were an estimated 890,000 cases in 2018 along with 450,000 deaths. The five-year survival rate of patients with head and neck cancer is about 60%.
Environmental risk factors for head and neck cancers include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, prolonged sun exposure, and certain viruses, including human papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
In particular, HPV infection is a risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer (cancer of the middle of the throat, including the tonsils and base of tongue). The overall incidence of HPV-positive head and neck cancers is rapidly increasing in the U.S., while the incidence of HPV-negative (primarily tobacco- and alcohol-related) cancer is decreasing. While a strong causal relationship has been established between HPV type 16 and the development of oropharyngeal cancer, other HPV types have been associated with oropharyngeal cancer as well. HPV-related head and neck cancer has a unique risk factor profile, and a more favorable prognosis than tobacco or alcohol induced HNSCCA.
Though head and neck cancer is generally considered to be highly treatable and curable with surgery or radiation when detected in early stage, other options are needed for patients.
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Treatment for head and neck cancer depends on individual factors, including the exact location of the tumor, stage of the tumor, and a person’s general health. These conventional treatments for head and neck cancer (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) may be used alone or in combination, depending on stage and location.
Head and neck cancer is highly curable—often with single-modality therapy (surgery or radiation)—if detected early. More advanced head and neck cancers are generally treated with various combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. With any treatment plan, the goal is not only to remove the cancer, but also to preserve the functions of the structures involved in speaking, swallowing, and expression.
There are currently three approved immunotherapy options for head and neck cancer.
- Cetuximab (Erbitux®): a monoclonal antibody that targets the EGFR pathway; approved for subsets of patients with advanced head and neck cancer, including as a first-line therapy
- Nivolumab (Opdivo®): a checkpoint inhibitor that targets the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway; approved for subsets of patients with advanced head and neck cancer
- Pembrolizumab (Keytruda®): a checkpoint inhibitor that targets the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway; approved for subsets of patients with advanced head and neck cancer
Head and neck cancer patients with advanced disease should consider participating in a clinical trial if eligible.
Find a head and neck cancer clinical trial
At CRI, we have dedicated funding, fellowships, and grants to support scientific research into the connection between cancer and viruses, especially in head and neck cancers.
- In the late 1960s, CRI-supported scientists Ted Boyse, Herbert Oettgen, and Lloyd J. Old found evidence to link the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and nasopharyngeal cancer, giving the field one of the earliest indications of a bridge between a virus and human cancer. Since the 1970s until his death in 2016), CRI supported the work of George Klein at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden on the relationship between EBV and cancer.
- Since 1994, CRI has given out more than $4 million dollars for human papillomavirus (HPV) research. This has led to a number of clinical trials testing HPV vaccines, including one that was FDA approved in 2006 (Gardasil).
- In 2008, CRI funded John C. Herr, of the University of Virginia, to study CABYR as a biomarker for lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.
Explore CRI’s current funding for head and neck cancer research in our funding directory.
Donate to head and neck cancer research