radiation therapy: The use of high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors, delivered by x-ray equipment or via internal radiation implants. [ACS]
randomized clinical trial: A clinical trial in which participants agree to be randomly assigned to groups that are receiving different treatments whose effectiveness is being studied, a process that allows treatment effectiveness to be evaluated objectively. [NCI]
receptor: A molecule in or on a cell that binds to a certain substance and causes a specific physiological effect. [NCI]
recombinant substances: DNA, proteins, cells, or organisms that are made from two different genetic sources and being studied as treatments for cancer and other diseases. [NCI]
recurrence: The return of cancer, either in the original site or a new location, after a period of remission. [NCI]
refractory cancer: Cancer that is resistant to treatment. [NCI]
regulatory T Cell: As part of the immune response, regulatory T cells specialize in telling B cells when to stop making antibodies. They also instruct T cells to call off an assault at the end of an immune reaction.
remission: The disappearance of some or all cancer signs and symptoms, which does not necessarily mean the disease has been cured. [NCI]
retinoblastoma: Cancer of the retina, light-sensitive tissues in the eyes, which tends to occur in children under age 5. [NCI]
retrospective study: See case-control study.
ribonucleic acid: RNA, which send genetic information from DNA to cell proteins.[ACS]